Gut Health

Having healthy gut will help the body prevent and heal many chronic diseases such as allergies, asthma, thyroid disorders, ulcerative colitis, arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, oesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, anxiety, depression, eczema, psoriasis, autoimmune diseases. The gut can not perform properly its function when it leaks and its micro biota is in disequilibrium. The cause is usually due to – not being breastfed at birth – unhealthy diet – bad eating habit – physical , emotional and mental stress and – frequent use of antibiotics . Using bovine colostrum, black cumin seed oil, fermented foods, changing diet and eating habit and changing lifestyle can help restore and protect our gut health and free us from many chronic diseases including those mentioned above.

Digestive tract (gut) function in brief

The gut’s primary function is to make suitable nutrients from foods and drink we consume (digestion), feed them into blood stream (absorption of nutrients), prevent unwanted matters from entering the blood and eliminate undigested matters ( excretion). 90% of digestion and absorption is performed in the small intestine. The lining of the healthy intestine is one cell thick with tight junctions to allow only appropriate nutrients into the blood while keeping large molecules out. The digestive system needs both healthy gut and good gut flora (micro biota) to work effectively. The gut microbiome contains tens of trillions micro organisms (virus and bacteria) which communicate with the brain. It has at least 1000 kinds of micro-organisms with more than 3 million genes (150 times more than human genes). It weighs in total up to 2 kilos. Most microorganisms in the gut are friendly and not harmful to our body. A third of our microbiome are the same while 2 thirds are particular or unique to each person. Gut bacteria are essential for our body with many important roles including:

• Helping to produce hormones, like serotonin, for example

• Aiding in the extraction of energy (calories) and nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids and antioxidants

• Managing our appetite and body weight

• Digesting fiber which helps form stool

• Controlling our moods, motivation and cognitive health

• Preventing us from catching colds and viruses

• Helping repair damaged tissues and injuries.

A healthy gut has more friendly bacteria than bad bacteria. When there are more bad bacteria than good bacteria, gut health is in trouble. This condition of “dysbiosis” often happens after a course of antibiotics. Research shows that after a week of antibiotics treatment it takes up to a year to restore normal gut micro biota. The majority of germs live in the large intestine while the small intestine is usually sterile. But when the germs sneak up into the small intestine and proliferate there, the gut microbiota becomes unhealthy creating a condition called “Small Intestine Bacteria Overgrowth” (SIBO), one of the main causes of IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) and can contribute to leak gut condition.

Leaky gut in adults

When the lining of the intestine is damaged or leaks, the tight junctions become loose allowing toxins and large molecules to enter the blood stream. The body’s organs are invaded. The immune system is mobilised to fight back. The battle is raging all over the body, causing casualties, weakening and damaging its organs. Inflammation spreads all over the body, antihistamines are sent out. All sort of abnormal symptoms surface, especially skin and respiratory allergies.

Certain incidents can cause leaky gut. The first and most common incident happens when we eat food containing gluten, a protein in wheat , barley , rye , spelt, flour, farina, couscous. Gluten increases the protein zonulin, a substance that loosens intestinal tight junctions.

The second is when in the gut we have undigested food, harmful food. Eating on the go, or in a rush does not give enough time for the food to be digested. The result is intestinal inflammation. Inflammation is like fire. It starts burning and causing damage to intestinal tight junctions causing leaky gut.. Undigested food particles, bacteria, yeast and things like that go into the blood. All of the body including the brain, inflammation is activated to resist aggression.

The immune system normally can heal gut damages during sleep if the condition is limited. However if we keep consuming gluten food, or frequently eating in a hurry and do not give enough time (at least 12 hours) for the digestion to rest, the immune system can not heal daily gut damage. Thirdly, when we have mental, emotional and physical stress, the body secretes cortisol, which reduces healing DHEA and growth hormones hormone. Cortisol reduces IGA (immunoglobins) in all viscous membranes of the body, particularly in the gut, the role of which is to prevent proliferation of parasites , micro-organisms and fungal. Therefore, It essential to reduce all types of stress to avoid risks of leaky gut.

Leaky gut in children

In recent years there have been so many children suffering food allergies and eczema due to leaky gut. It is mainly because many children are born by C- section, instead of natural birth. And they were not breast-fed in the first four or five days of life. Natural birth allows babies to absorb billions of good germs from the mother’s birth canal. Good bacteria from mothers are needed for the children’s life long immune system. Children born by C- section are deprived of bacteria for their digestive and immune systems. At birth, the newborns have intestine permeability or leaky gut by design. However the condition disappears after two days of feeding on colostrum – mother milk secreted first few days after giving birth – which contains growth factors to tighten the gut lining. In other words, after the first few days of having colostrum, breastfed babies no longer have leaky gut.

Babies not breastfed from birth miss the natural closing of leaky gut, therefore suffer leaky gut related diseases, especially food allergies and eczema. The good news is that this leaky gut condition can be healed by taking bovine colostrum, according to new research findings and clinical trials. As this new information is new and has not been widely known, it is unfortunate that too many children still suffer food allergies and eczema.

Symptoms and signs of leaky gut

-Food allergy is the most common sign and symptom of leaky gut.

• Irritable Bowel Syndrome (constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain) and

• Inflammatory Bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease (diarrhea, abdominal pain, unexplained weight loss, anal bleeding, constipation, nausea, fever) and ulcerative colitis as severe leaky gut can occur in the large intestine.

• Autoimmune diseases like Lupus (when the immune system attacks the body’s tissues and organs), Multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes, arthritis, psoriasis and ceczema.

• Thyroid disorders such as Hashimoto’s, thyroidisis, metabolic syndrome causing fatigue, depression, weight gaining, and obesity.

• Nutrient malabsorption causing deficiency in B12, magnesium and digestive enzymes.

• Brain disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, Parkinson’s.

In addition, the following signs may relate to leaky gut:

• Gastric ulcers

• Infectious diarrhea

• Celiac disease

• Esophageal and colorectal cancer

• Allergies

• Respiratory infections

• Acute inflammation conditions (sepsis, SIRS, multiple organ failure)

• Obesity-related metabolic diseases (fatty liver, Type II diabetes, heart disease)

• Propensity towards weight gain or obesity

Natural ways to heal leaky gut

1. Remove factors that may cause damages to the gut: First we should eat slowly with thorough chewing before swallowing. Do not eat on the run. Instead sit down, relax and enjoy eating. Secondly, let your digestive system rest at least 12 hours a day for healing.

Next, stop eating: – unsprouted grains and seeds – and GMOS animal and plant products • sugar added foods • refined vegetable oils such as soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, – chemically processed foods • Dairy products

2. Gut health supplements

Bovine or goat colostrum. Colostrum contains antimicrobial peptides, immune-regulating compounds and growth factors. It provides essential nutrients, regulates immune response, balances gut flora and improves tissue growth and healing. Clinical results confirm Colostrum’s effectiveness in healing leaky gut and related symptoms including psoriasis, acne, eczema, allergies in making skin look younger. Colostrum is available in almost every country in capsules and in powder.

Black cumin seed oil. Research and clinical trials show that black cumin seed oil can help heal leaky gut symptoms such as psoriasis, inflammation, inflammation, eczema, allergies, asthma or cough. The healing can be quick with children, but it may take 1-2 months for adults . (Please see the article black cumin seed oil). Recommended dosage is from 40 mg to 120 mg/ kg of body weight. It is better to try with small dose.

• Probiotics (approximately 50-100 billion live bacteria of CFU (colony forming unit) a day to help replenish good gut bacteria and reduce bad gut bacteria number.

• L-Glutamine-an essential amino acid supplement helps protect and heal the gut lining.

• Licorice root as extract powder or tea helps balance cortisol, improve stomach acid level and protect, heal throat mucus lining. Using 2 licorice tea bags per cup can quickly reduce reflux, bloating, abdominal pain and sticky sensation in the throat.

3. Increase in consumption of gut healing foods such as – bone or vegetable broth. It is been shown that 3-4 days of fasting with only bone or vegetable broth significantly improves autoimmune disease and leaky gut condition.

• Fermented vegetables and foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi, natto, yogurt, kombucha, fermented ginger. If you are still allergic to foods, please test each of them before consuming. These foods have lots of good gut bacteria and can replace the probiotics at a later stage of treatment.

• Coconut products-all coconut products are very good for the gut. Medium chain fatty acid in coconut oil is more easily digested than other fats and is good for the gut. Coconut yogurt or kefir is better than dairy yogurt for some people.

• Vegetables rich in soluble fiber are prebiotic, essential for nourishing and multiplying good gut bacteria: Beet root, beans, onion, garlic, apple, unripe banana, sweet potato, grain and seed sprouts, chilled cooked potatoes. It is better to start with cooked vegetables.

• Increased consumption of good fats such as egg yolks, avocados, cold pressed coconut oil, flax seed oil, wild caught fish – to a moderate level.

• Increased consumption of fruits of diverse variety with moderation daily 1-2 times, best time is the morning.

• Add ginger and turmeric in daily diet to enhance digestion including relief of bloating, reflux, and healing of intestinal and stomach lining.

4. Reduce mental, physical and emotional stress.

Breathing exercise, relaxation, mindfulness meditation, moderate physical exercise, praying, practice to be thankful, forgiving and Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) can be used effectively to release stress thus reducing cortisol and inflammation that play an important role in gut disorders.

DISCLAIMER: This guide is for information purpose only and does not replace the advice of your physicians.

References

Axe, J. 7 Signs and Symptoms You Have Leaky Gut Syndrome. Dr Axe Food is Medicine Published: May 8, 2018. https://draxe.com/7-signs-symptoms-you-have-leaky-gut/

Axe, J. The Leaky Gut Diet and Treatment Plan. Dr Axe Food is Medicine. Published: July 30, 2018

Bryant, T. Gluten: What One bite of Bread Can do. IBS & SIBO SOS Summit Colostrum. Sciencedaily. URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/colostrum.htm

Gundersen, M. 5 Ways Ginger Benefits Digestion. Gut Health Project. June 9, 2016. https://www.guthealthproject.com/5-ways-ginger-benefits-digestion/

Halasa et al. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes. Nutrients. 2017 Apr; 9(4): 370. Published online 2017 Apr 8. doi: 10.3390/nu9040370 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5409709/

Jockers, D. The vitamin Summit Interview Transcript

Menchetti et al. Potential benefits of colostrum in gastrointestinal diseases . Frontiers in Bioscience, Scholar, 8, 331-351, June 1, 2016

Partha Nandi, M.D. The big picture: 5 Key steps to healing Your gut and your life. IBS & SIBO SOS Summit Interview Transcript

Siebecber, M.D. IBS and SIBO Foundations & Fundamental. IBS & SIBO SOS Summit Interview transcript

Tamara Vukavić . Timing of the Gut closure. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 3(5):700–703, NOV 1984 Publication Date: 1984/11/01

Wyatt, D.A. (2014) Leaky Gut Syndrome: A Modern Epidemic with an Ancient Solution? Townsend Letter, June 2014 http://www.sovereignhealthinitiative.org/articles/lgs_townsend.html

SHORT GUIDE TO PREVENTING AND REVERSING DEMENTIA

SHORT GUIDE TO PREVENTING AND REVERSING MEMORY LOSS 

PDF download here  

 Loss of memory affects more and more people in the world, especially the elderly. This evidence-based brief guide may help you confidently start and engage in the fight against memory loss with concrete and simple steps.

Risk factors:

There are many factors that may lead to memory loss – from short-term dementia to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

They include excess alcohol consumption, smoking, inflammation, depression, drug effects and interactions, lung problems, metabolic disease or abnormalities, diabetes, sleep problems, anxiety and/or depression, obstructive sleep apnea, stress, vitamin deficiency, abnormal thyroid function and metabolic syndrome involving abdominal obesity, low levels of HDL cholesterol, high triglyceride levels, high blood pressure and insulin resistance. Evidences have accumulated that dementia symptoms clearly improve once these factors are well under control or reversed.

Dementia resulting from strokes and brain injuries that impair blood flow to the brain – called vascular dementia – is more difficult to improve or reverse. However, we can lower the chance of developing vascular dementia by controlling risk factors of heart disease and stroke.

The following changes in diet, lifestyles and medication have proven effective in improving and even reversing memory loss.

PART 1: Protecting and improving memory 

  1. If you have been experiencing fatigue, anxiety, depression or restlessness and irritability you may need high potency Vitamin B complex. Deficiency in B3 is often associated with loss of memory, dementia, fatigue, depression and anxiety. Deficiency in B5 involves restlessness and irritability. Deficiency in B12 is associated with dementia, memory loss as well as anxiety and irritability while B7 deficiency may also cause depression. In fact deficiency in any one of several different B vitamins can cause anxiety. If you have been taking anti-depressant, anti-psychotic and anxiolytic drugs, talk to your doctor because sometimes they contribute to memory loss, depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts. Recommended dosage: 1 capsule of high potency B complex a day, 500 mg vitamin B3 three times a day.
  2. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and foods that cause diabetes, inflammation, obesity such as sugary foods, processed foods, vegetable oils (except coconut oil and raw olive oil), white bread, sugary cake, white rice.
  3. Eat a healthy diet with fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean protein from low fat dairy products, nuts, seeds, fish, beans, occasional servings of eggs, poultry, and lean meats, olive oil and avocado oil.
  4. Increase daily consumption of special foods and herbs that can help protect memory:
  • 3 tablespoons of virgin coconut oil a day. Coconut oil contains 60% of medium chain triglycerides (MCT), which have been proved to increase 8-9 % of the brain energy with as little as 20-30 mg a day. Virgin coconut oil also helps reduce many dementia risk factors including inflammation, oxidative stress, inducing weight loss, increase metabolism, enhancing the immune system.
  • Edible and medicinal mushrooms such as Shiitake, Cordyceps , Veiled lady mushroom ( indusiata), Caterpillar fungus (C. militaris), Reshi, Lion’s mane, Maitakei or Hen of the woods (Grifola frondosa)

Research confirms these mushrooms are functional foods for the brain. Some of them can help regenerate damaged brain cells and stimulate nerve growth factor (Lion’s mane, Reshi, Hen of the woods). If fresh or dried mushrooms are not available in your region, they can be found as dietary supplements in powder and extract powder with instruction of use and dosage.

  • Teas made from brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Gotu kola, Ginkgo biloba, or ginseng. Clinical trials confirmed these herbs are tonic to brain and memory. In particular, bacopa can effective in alleviating cognitive decline and in enhancing cognitive function while Gotu kola can increase memory and cognition, repair and reverse damage to brain cells
  • One teaspoon of black cumin seed oil with 1 teaspoon of honey or some fresh orange juice before bed, especially if having enough good sleep is a problem.
  • Black cumin seed oil also has other health benefits for heart disease, diabetes, obesity, memory loss, kidney disease, enlarged prostate , fatigue, depression and anxiety.
  • Flax seeds, flax seed oil, fatty fish, fish oil, walnuts. Rich in Omega-3 fatty acids, these foods help modulate the structure of nerve cell membranes to protect the central nervous system.
  1. Exercise to ensure adequate flow of oxygen rich blood to the brain areas responsible or learning and memory function. Table tennis and badminton games are perfect for this purpose as they involve eye-hand coordination, decision-making, rapid information processing and increased blood circulation. It benefits the brain to get fit by having at least 30 minutes of aerobic exercise at least 5 days a week (e.g. walking, running, jogging, rope skipping, swimming, water walking, cycling…). Vary your activities to avoid boredom. Even household chores and gardening are good exercise.
  2. Be sure to have enough good sleep ( about 7 hours a day) by developing a healthy sleeping habit. A teaspoon (or a capsule) of black cumin seed oil with honey one hour before bed is beneficial for your sleep.
  3. Stay socially active to keep your brain active through having meaningful interactions with others. Make friends if you don’t have any friends.
  4. Stay mentally active by frequently engaging in mentally challenging activities such as reading news, playing chess, chinese chess or scrabbles, taking dance lessons, memorizing favorite quotes, scriptures or memorizing and singing favorite songs, hymns.

PART 2: REVERSING SEVERE MEMORY LOSS.

If you are the carer for a loved one of yours who has severe dementia (Alzheimer’s or Parkinsons) the following may stop the condition from getting worse and bring back the memory. These have been well researched and proved effective for many people even though not every one.

  1. Vitamin Bs: Serve our loved one with the following doses of vitamin Bs – used successfully in an Oxford University study to stop brain shrinkage : 0.5milligrams of Vitamin B12, 20 milligrams of B6, and 0.8 milligrams of folic acid (or B9) a day.
  2.  Herbal extracts: Serve the patient once a day : 300-500 mg of bacopa monnieri extract, 2000 IU Vitamin E and 1000-4000 mg of lion’s mane mushroom hot water extract (containing a minimum of 15% beta glucan).A clinically proven effective supplement called Redimind , containing bacopa monnieri extract, lion’s mane extract, ginkgo extract, alpha GPC and Huperzine A (firmoss) extract, is available online at https://www.nutreance.com/products/redimind/
  3. 21 day diet plan: Every 6 months, use  the following 21 day diet plan as recommended by Dr. Ron Goldman based on a study undertaken by the Yale University of Medicine. Foods in this diet plan provide the components of TC-2153 – a compound that improves the potential to reverse Alzheimer’s as discovered in the above study – and fall into 1 or several of the 4 main groups:
  • Group A contains foods rich in hydrochloric acid, alkaline foods and nitrogen, the mixing of which will give amine hydrochlorides, a component that has been found to benefit the fight against AD in the above study.
    • Hydrochloric acid subgroup includes apple cider vinegar, lemon juice, black olive, celery, spinach, apples.
    • Alkaline foods subgroup includes almonds, grapefruit, mushroom, soy beans, peaches, bell pepper, radish, pineapple, cherries, wild rice, strawberries, bananas, apricot, avocados, green tea, lettuce, celery, sweet potatoes, peas, egg plant, green beans, beets, blueberries, pears, grapes, kiwi fruits, melons, tangerine, figs, dates, mangoes, papayas, spinach, broccoli, artichokes, cabbage, cauliflower, green beans, carrots, cucumbers, lemons, limes, seaweed, asparagus, kale, radish, collard greens, onion.
    • Nitrogen subgroup includes beef, pork, chicken, turkey, goose, duck, mussels, sardines, anchovies, scallops, crab, shrimp, lobster, oyster, cauliflower, spinach, green peas, asparagus, eggs, nuts, oats, milk, yogurt.
  • Group B contains Benzyl alcohols, which are needed to enable neurotransmitters to move freely around the brain. Foods in group B include beets, carrots, leafy vegetables, lettuce, raspberries, tea and essential oils (jasmine, ylang-ylang).
  • Group C contains the Catalyst or Iron nitrates, needed to “catalyze amine hydrochlorides and benzyl alcohols so that they can actually work within the brain”. Foods in this group include arugula, rhubarb, cilantro, butter leaf lettuce, basil, beet greens, oak leaf lettuce, Swiss chard, beet juice, spinach, dark chocolate (75% cocoa), coffee, raspberries, salmon.
  • Group T contains foods that induce Trifluoromethyl, a compound that helps reverse Alzheimer’s and can be promoted in the body through a diet that is rich in carboxylic acids. This group therefore consists of foods rich in carboxylic acids such as pickles, ketchup, mustard, salad dressing, marinades, vinegar, apples, grapes, blueberries, cherries, strawberries, pineapple, lemons, lime juice, oranges, persimmons, green tea, beer, chocolate, rhubarb, artichokes, lettuce, apple juice, apple cider, oranges, red beans, lentils, cinnamon, thyme, cloves, vanilla, tomatoes.

Each day of the 21 days diet cycle, consume (yourself and your loved one with memory problem) a bowl of salad mix made up of foods/drink in all 4 groups. It is best to have it eaten within a 15 minute time period between 6 and 8 o’clock in the evening (or between 10 am and 11:30 am in the morning if taking coffee). You can make the salad mix /drink differently each day according to the following amounts of foods for different groups:

  • Group A: 1 ounce (or 30 grams) of foods in each subgroup’s list or 1 glass of milk, or 1 cup of yogurt, or 1 medium size boiled egg. E.g. 1 ounce (or 30 grams) of boiled sweet potatoes plus 1 ounce of roast beef (or pork or chicken..) and 1 cup of low fat yogurt.
  • Group B: 4 ounces or 120 grams of different products or a pint or a large glass (480 mls) of tea leaves infusion. E.g. 60 grams of carrots  plus 60 grams of beet or 480 mls of tea infusion
  • Group C: 1 ounce (or 30 grams) of an ingredient in the list or 1 cup strong coffee or 1 glass of juice. E.g. 30 grams of dark chocolate or 30 g of spinach
  • Group T: 2 ounces or 60 grams of different products or 1 glass of drink from the list. E.g. 2 ounces or 60 grams of tomatoes or 1 glass of apple juice.

It is best to plan in advance to save time in grocery shopping and food preparation.

It is not statistically known how effective  this plan works. But it is worth trying if you want to prevent or reverse memory loss because  it is very healthy, easy to follow & cheap.

Disclaimer: This short guide is for information only and does not replace the advice of the physician in charge.

Download PDF here Preventing and Reversing Memory Loss

References:

Courchesne-Loyer, A. (2013) – Stimulation of mild, sustained ketonemia by medium-chain triacylglycerols in healthy humans: Estimated potential contribution to brain energy metabolism. Nutrition. April 2013 Volume 29, Issue 4, Pages 635–640

Croteau et al (2018) Ketogenic Medium Chain Triglycerides Increase Brain Energy Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;64(2):551-561. doi: 10.3233/JAD-180202.

Goldman, R. & Lynch, A. (2014). The Memory Healer Program. Reverse the effects of memory loss. copy@memoryhealer.com 2014. http://www.memoryhealers.com/memory-healer-program/

McPhee, G.M., Downey, L.A., Noble, A., Stough, C. (2016) Cognitive training and Bacopa monnieri: Evidence for a combined intervention to alleviate age associated cognitive decline. Med Hypotheses. 2016 Oct;95:71-76. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2016.09.002. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Morgan, A. & Stevens, J. (2010) Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jul;16(7):753-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2009.0342.

Mucci Dde B. et al (2015). Flaxseed mitigates brain mass loss, improving motor hyperactivity and spatial memory, in a rodent model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015 Jun;97:13-9. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2015.03.001. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Navneet Kumar et al (2016). Efficacy of Standardized Extract of Bacopa monnieri(Bacognize®) on Cognitive Functions of Medical Students: A Six-Week, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 2016: 4103423. Published online 2016 Oct 10. doi:  10.1155/2016/4103423

Nutrition. MCT contribution to brain energy. Nutrition. 2013 Apr;29(4):635-40 https://www.nutritionjrnl.com/article/S0899-9007(12)00365-6/abstract

Phan, C.W., David, P & Sabaratnam, V. (2017), Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Emerging Brain Food for the Mitigation of Neurodegenerative Diseases. J Med Food. 2017 Jan;20(1):1-10. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2016.3740.

Sahak et al (2016) The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Constituents in Learning and Memory. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 2016: 6075679. Published online 2016 Feb 28. doi:  10.1155/2016/6075679

Syntyche Ling-Sing Seow et al (2013) Potentiation of neuritogenic activity of medicinal mushrooms in rat pheochromocytoma cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13: 157. Published online 2013 Jul 4. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-157

Tomen, D. (1) Lion’s Mane. https://nootropicsexpert.com/lions-mane/

Tomen, D. (2). Gotu Kola. https://nootropicsexpert.com/gotu-kola/

UHN staff (2017). Coconut Oil for Memory Loss? Helps Alzheimer’s Patients Stay Active Longer. https://universityhealthnews.com/daily/memory/coconut-oil-for-memory-loss-helps-alzheimers-patients-stay-active-longer/